In the Kingdom of Bahrain, the desert environment prevails and covers the area of most islands. The desert is home to many types of insects, reptiles, birds and wild mammals. It is also an important source of medicinal desert plants that are used in folk medicine. Despite their importance, urban growth and camping activities have affected desert areas in some regions, especially those near the populated areas in the north of Bahrain.
At least 1301 species belonging to the major taxonomic ranks have been identified in the Kingdom of Bahrain. However, the increasing pressure on the environment has led to a possible decline in the number of species and their range.