International Conventions

The Kingdom of Bahrain has ratified many regional and international agreements, conventions and protocols related to protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development:

List of international environment agreements




No.
Name of the convention
Accession
Description
1
Royal Decree 75 of 2016 on ratifying the Paris Agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
2016
The agreement aims to strengthen the global response to the threat of climate change by holding the increase in global average temperature well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels as well as increase the ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development
2
Law No. 54 of 2014 Approving the Unified Law (Regulation) of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for the Arab States on the Control of Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
2014
An agreement is aimed at the total elimination of the consumption of Ozone-depleting materials and the establishment of safe alternatives that consistent with the national interests of GCC countries, legalizing the import, export and re-export of these materials
3
Decree No. 32 of 2013 on ratifying the Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Concerning the Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
2013
Under the amendment, Bahrain was obliged to take new control measures to get rid of Hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) materials
4
Convention concerning the Protection of Workers against Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment Due to Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration, signed in Geneva, 1977
It aims to protect workers against Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment Due to Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration. National laws or regulations shall prescribe the measures to be taken for the prevention and control of, and protection against, occupational hazards in the working environment due to air pollution, noise and vibration.
5
1999 Beijing Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Concerning the Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Decree 32/2013
The amendment aimed to control substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
6
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES)
Law 27/2012
CITES aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species in the wild
7
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade
Law 14/2012
It is a multilateral treaty to promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals. The convention promotes open exchange of information and calls on exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labeling, include directions on safe handling, and inform purchasers of any known restrictions or bans.
8
Agreement between the Kingdom of Bahrain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
Law 10/2011
According to the agreement, the Kingdom of Bahrain undertakes to accept safeguards on all source material and special fissionable materials in all peaceful nuclear activities carried out within its territory or under its jurisdiction or under its control
9
Cartagena Protocol on Bio-safety
Law 2/2011
Protocol aims to contribute to ensuring an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling and use of 'living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology' that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
10
Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident
Edict 1/2011
It is an international agreement aimed at achieving greater international cooperation in the peaceful development and use of nuclear energy through the provision of adequate information about nuclear accidents as early as possible so as to minimize trans-border radiological consequences
11
Convention on Nuclear Safety
Law 44/2010
This agreement aims to enhance international cooperation in the safe use of atomic energy in order to raise the level of nuclear safety worldwide and to maintain that level through strengthening national measures and international cooperation
12
Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its amendments
Law 11/2010
It is an international agreement that gives all States Parties the right to develop nuclear energy for peaceful purposes to achieve the legitimate interests that can be derived from the peaceful use of nuclear energy
13
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC)
Law 4/2010
This agreement establishes cooperation between countries in the fight against marine pollution caused by oil
14
Agreement between the Government of the Kingdom of Bahrain and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) on the establishment of the Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage (ARC-WH) in Bahrain
2010
The agreement aims to balance and increase the representation of Arab States’ properties on the World Heritage List, promote better protection and management of these properties, mobilize regional and international financial support, and raise awareness about World Heritage in the region.
15
Amended Arab Agreement cooperation on the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes
Law 17/2008
It is an international agreement aimed at contributing to the developing Arab community and raising the economic level through the mastery of science, research and nuclear technologies and its peaceful applications. It also seeks to help provide opportunities for scientific and technical research and promotion in the nuclear energy field in cooperation with the relevant institutions and bodies in coordination between the Arab States in their nuclear science activities.
16
Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Decree 45/2005
It is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the Earth Summit. It aims to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
17
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
Law 39/2005
This convention aims to transform the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development into a an approach to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants
18
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)
Law 32/2005
Based on the International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (Brussels, 1969), the convention gives all States parties the right to control the types of marine pollutants, whether petroleum products or other harmful materials, through monitoring oil tankers and ships.
19
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Law 2/2004
It is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.
20
Convention on the Conservation Wildlife and its Natural Habitats In the Gulf Cooperation Council
May 15, 2002
The convention to conserve the ecosystems and wildlife in a sound and growing state, particularly the species threatened with extinction, and specifically when the distribution of such species exceeds the international border of two neighboring countries or more, or when such species migrate across these countries, including the territorial waters or the airspace under their sovereignty
21
Regional Protocol on the Control of Marine Trans-boundary Movements and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes and Other Wastes
Decree 26/2001
It highlights the importance of cooperation and effective coordination at the regional level in order to control the maritime transport of hazardous waste and other wastes and restrict the import of wastes from non-contracting countries
22
Amendments to the Copenhagen (1992), and Montreal (1997) Protocols on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
Decree 41/2000
The amendments developed new regulations for controlled substances on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
23
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification
Decree-Law 9/1997
This is the first and only international and legally-binding agreement that aims to address the problem of desertification. It is based on the principles of partnership and decentralized participation in sustainable development management
24
Convention on Biological Diversity
Decree-Law 18/1996
The convention aims to conserve biological diversity, sustainable use of its components and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
25
International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage
Decree-Law 13/1995
The Convention applies to the pollution damage located in the territories of States Parties, including their territorial sea economic region
26
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, (March 22, 1985) and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (September 16, 1987)
Decree-Law 10/1995
It is designed to protect the ozone layer through phasing out the production of a number of substances that are believed to be responsible for the depletion of the ozone layer. The treaty provides a timetable for a gradual stop for the production of each group and eventually eliminating them
27
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
Decree 7/1994
The UNFCCC objective is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
28
Arab Convention No. 7 of 1977 and Recommendation No. 1 of 1977 concerning occupational safety and health
Decree 2/1994
This convention aims to ensure that Arab legislation include the provisions of the occupational safety and health in all work areas and sectors, and the provisions to insure workers from occupational accidents and diseases
29
Basel Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, and its amendment
Decree-Law 11/1992 and Law 8/2005
It is an international treaty that was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs)
30
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
Decree 10/1990
It is a multilateral environmental convention that was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988. It acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. However, it does not include legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs, the main chemical agents causing ozone depletion.
31
Protocol concerning Marine Pollution resulting from Exploration and Exploitation of the Continental Shelf and the Protocol for the Protection of the Marine Environment against Pollution from Land-Based Sources
Decree 9/1990
The protocol focuses on combating pollution resulting from land-based sources, and establishes coordination among state parties in this regard.
32
International Convention for the Safety Of Life at Sea and its Annexes, signed in London on November 1, 1974
Decree-Law 13/1985
It aims to achieve maritime safety. It ensures that ships flagged by signatory States comply with minimum safety standards in construction, equipment and operation
33
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, and their Annexes, signed on October 20, 1972
Decree-Law 13/1985
This agreement aims to ensure the safety of humans and commercial ships in the sea. It applies to commercial ships that carry out international sailing voyages and flying the flag of the country in which they are registered. It gives countries many rights and duties.
34
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, signed in London in 1954, and amendments to it
Decree-Law 13/1985
The convention and amendments to it aim to prevent pollution of the sea by oil discharged from ships.
35
Arab Convention No. (1) of 1981 on Work Environment
Decree 7/1983
It aims to protect and improve the working environment and surroundings make it more humane and appropriate human capacity for employees, and develop their own standards for maximum limits of the factors affecting the work environment
36
United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
1982
It is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world's oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources.
37
Kuwait Regional Convention for Cooperation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution
Decree-Law 17/1978
States Parties to this Convention seek to cope with emergency situations that may cause serious pollution by oil and other harmful substances and the need to take joint and effective measures to address them
38
Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Convention
November 16, 1972
The Convention sets out the duties of States Parties in identifying potential sites and their role in protecting and preserving them. By signing the Convention, each country pledges to conserve not only the World Heritage sites situated on its territory, but also to protect its national heritage. States Parties are encouraged to integrate the protection of the cultural and natural heritage into regional planning programs, set up staff and services at their sites, undertake scientific and technical conservation research
39
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar Convention)
1971
States parties should focus on wetland conservation land and water birds through the establishment of natural sanctuaries in wet lands and providing the necessary guard
40
International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage
1971
The convention established a supplementary fund in the States Parties to this Convention. The FUND has a legal personality and compensates anyone suffering from oil pollution damage
41
International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties
1969
The convention aims to give adequate compensation to persons for damage resulting from the oil spill or discharge from ships. It also aims to unify international rules and procedures that apply to civil liability in this regard